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Fluid Mechanics : Fundamentals and Applications /

by Cengel, Yunus A; Cimbala, John M.
Edition: Third Edition.Description: xxii, 1000 pages : colour illustrations ; 26 cm.ISBN: 9780073380322; 0073380326.Subject(s): Fluid dynamics
Contents:
Machine generated contents note: ch. One Introduction And Basic Concepts -- 1-1. Introduction -- What Is a Fluid? -- Application Areas of Fluid Mechanics -- 1-2.A Brief History of Fluid Mechanics -- 1-3. The No-Slip Condition -- 1-4. Classification of Fluid Flows -- Viscous versus Inviscid Regions of Flow -- Internal versus External Flow -- Compressible versus Incompressible Flow -- Laminar versus Turbulent Flow -- Natural (or Unforced) versus Forced Flow -- Steady versus Unsteady Flow -- One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Flows -- 1-5. System and Control Volume -- 1-6. Importance of Dimensions and Units -- Some SI and English Units -- Dimensional Homogeneity -- Unity Conversion Ratios -- 1-7. Modeling in Engineering -- 1-8. Problem-Solving Technique -- Step 1 Problem Statement -- Step 2 Schematic -- Step 3 Assumptions and Approximations -- Step 4 Physical Laws -- Step 5 Properties -- Step 6 Calculations -- Step 7 Reasoning, Verification, and Discussion.
Contents note continued: 1-9. Engineering Software Packages -- Engineering Equation Solver (EES) -- CFD Software -- 1-10. Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Digits -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Application Spotlight: What Nuclear Blasts and Raindrops Have in Common -- Problems -- ch. Two Properties Of Fluids -- 2-1. Introduction -- Continuum -- 2-2. Density and Specific Gravity -- Density of Ideal Gases -- 2-3. Vapor Pressure and Cavitation -- 2-4. Energy and Specific Heats -- 2-5.Compressibility and Speed of Sound -- Coefficient of Compressibility -- Coefficient of Volume Expansion -- Speed of Sound and Mach Number -- 2-6. Viscosity -- 2-7. Surface Tension and Capillary Effect -- Capillary Effect -- Summary -- Application Spotlight: Cavitation -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Three Pressure And Fluid Statics -- 3-1. Pressure -- Pressure at a Point -- Variation of Pressure with Depth -- 3-2. Pressure Measurement Devices.
Contents note continued: The Barometer 81 The Manometer -- Other Pressure Measurement Devices -- 3-3. Introduction to Fluid Statics -- 3-4. Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane Surfaces -- Special Case: Submerged Rectangular Plate -- 3-5. Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Curved Surfaces -- 3-6. Buoyancy and Stability -- Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies -- 3-7. Fluids in Rigid-Body Motion -- Special Case 1 Fluids at Rest -- Special Case 2 Free Fall of a Fluid Body -- Acceleration on a Straight Path -- Rotation in a Cylindrical Container -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Four Fluid Kinematics -- 4-1. Lagrangian and Eulerian Descriptions -- Acceleration Field -- Material Derivative -- 4-2. Flow Patterns and Flow Visualization -- Streamlines and Streamtubes -- Pathlines -- Streaklines -- Timelines -- Refractive Flow Visualization Techniques -- Surface Flow Visualization Techniques -- 4-3. Plots of Fluid Flow Data -- Profile Plots -- Vector Plots.
Contents note continued: Contour Plots -- 4-4. Other Kinematic Descriptions -- Types of Motion or Deformation of Fluid Elements -- 4-5. Vorticity and Rotationality -- Comparison of Two Circular Flows -- 4-6. The Reynolds Transport Theorem -- Alternate Derivation of the Reynolds Transport Theorem -- Relationship between Material Derivative and RTT -- Summary -- Application Spotlight: Fluidic Actuators -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Five Bernoulli And Energy Equations -- 5-1. Introduction -- Conservation of Mass -- The Linear Momentum Equation -- Conservation of Energy -- 5-2. Conservation of Mass -- Mass and Volume Flow Rates -- Conservation of Mass Principle -- Moving or Deforming Control Volumes -- Mass Balance for Steady-Flow Processes -- Special Case: Incompressible Flow -- 5-3. Mechanical Energy and Efficiency -- 5-4. The Bernoulli Equation -- Acceleration of a Fluid Particle -- Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation -- Force Balance across Streamlines.
Contents note continued: Unsteady, Compressible Flow -- Static, Dynamic, and Stagnation Pressures -- Limitations on the Use of the Bernoulli Equation -- Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL) and Energy Grade Line (EGL) -- Applications of the Bernoulli Equation -- 5-5. General Energy Equation -- Energy Transfer by Heat, Q -- Energy Transfer by Work, W -- 5-6. Energy Analysis of Steady Flows -- Special Case: Incompressible Flow with No Mechanical Work Devices and Negligible Friction -- Kinetic Energy Correction Factor, [alpha] -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Six Momentum Analysis Of Flow Systems -- 6-1. Newton's Laws -- 6-2. Choosing a Control Volume -- 6-3. Forces Acting on a Control Volume -- 6-4. The Linear Momentum Equation -- Special Cases -- Momentum-Flux Correction Factor, [beta] -- Steady Flow -- Flow with No External Forces -- 6-5. Review of Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum -- 6-6. The Angular Momentum Equation -- Special Cases.
Contents note continued: Flow with No External Moments -- Radial-Flow Devices -- Application Spotlight: Manta Ray Swimming -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Seven Dimensional Analysis And Modeling -- 7-1. Dimensions and Units -- 7-2. Dimensional Homogeneity -- Nondimensionalization of Equations -- 7-3. Dimensional Analysis and Similarity -- 7-4. The Method of Repeating Variables and The Buckingham Pi Theorem -- Historical Spotlight: Persons Honored by Nondimensional Parameters -- 7-5. Experimental Testing, Modeling, and Incomplete Similarity -- Setup of an Experiment and Correlation of Experimental Data -- Incomplete Similarity -- Wind Tunnel Testing -- Flows with Free Surfaces -- Application Spotlight: How a Fly Flies -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Eight Internal Flow -- 8-1. Introduction -- 8-2. Laminar and Turbulent Flows -- Reynolds Number -- 8-3. The Entrance Region -- Entry Leneths -- 8-4. Laminar Flow in Pipes.
Contents note continued: Pressure Drop and Head Loss -- Effect of Gravity on Velocity and Flow Rate in Laminar Flow -- Laminar Flow in Noncircular Pipes -- 8-5. Turbulent Flow in Pipes -- Turbulent Shear Stress -- Turbulent Velocity Profile -- The Moody Chart and the Colebrook Equation -- Types of Fluid Flow Problems -- 8-6. Minor Losses -- 8-7. Piping Networks and Pump Selection -- Series and Parallel Pipes -- Piping Systems with Pumps and Turbines -- 8-8. Flow Rate and Velocity Measurement -- Pitot and Pitot-Static Probes -- Obstruction Flowmeters: Orifice, Venturi, and Nozzle Meters -- Positive Displacement Flowmeters -- Turbine Flowmeters -- Variable-Area Flowmeters (Rotameters) -- Ultrasonic Flowmeters -- Electromagnetic Flowmeters -- Vortex Flowmeters -- Thermal (Hot-Wire and Hot-Film) Anemometers -- Laser Doppler Velocimetry -- Particle Image Velocimetry -- Introduction to Biofluid Mechanics -- Application Spotlight: PIV Applied to Cardiac Flow -- Summary.
Contents note continued: References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Nine Differential Analysis Of Fluid Flow -- 9-1. Introduction -- 9-2. Conservation of Mass---The Continuity Equation -- Derivation Using the Divergence Theorem -- Derivation Using an Infinitesimal Control Volume -- Alternative Form of the Continuity Equation -- Continuity Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates -- Special Cases of the Continuity Equation -- 9-3. The Stream Function -- The Stream Function in Cartesian Coordinates -- The Stream Function in Cylindrical Coordinates -- The Compressible Stream Function -- 9-4. The Differential Linear Momentum Equation---Cauchy's Equation -- Derivation Using the Divergence Theorem -- Derivation Using an Infinitesimal Control Volume -- Alternative Form of Cauchy's Equation -- Derivation Using Newton's Second Law -- 9-5. The Navier-Stokes Equation -- Introduction -- Newtonian versus Non-Newtonian Fluids.
Contents note continued: Derivation of the Navier-Stokes Equation for Incompressible, Isothermal Flow -- Continuity and Navier-Stokes Equations in Cartesian Coordinates -- Continuity and Navier-Stokes Equations in Cylindrical Coordinates -- 9-6. Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow Problems -- Calculation of the Pressure Field for a Known Velocity Field -- Exact Solutions of the Continuity and Navier-Stokes Equations -- Differential Analysis of Biofluid Mechanics Flows -- Application Spotlight: The No-Slip Boundary Condition -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Ten Approximate Solutions Of The Navier-Stokes Equation -- 10-1. Introduction -- 10-2. Nondimensionalized Equations of Motion -- 10-3. The Creeping Flow Approximation -- Drag on a Sphere in Creeping Flow -- 10-4. Approximation for Inviscid Regions of Flow -- Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation in Inviscid Regions of Flow -- 10-5. The Irrotational Flow Approximation -- Continuity Equation.
Contents note continued: Momentum Equation -- Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation in Irrotational Regions of Flow -- Two-Dimensional Irrotational Regions of Flow -- Superposition in Irrotational Regions of Flow -- Elementary Planar Irrotational Flows -- Irrotational Flows Formed by Superposition -- 10-6. The Boundary Layer Approximation -- The Boundary Layer Equations -- The Boundary Layer Procedure -- Displacement Thickness -- Momentum Thickness -- Turbulent Flat Plate Boundary Layer -- Boundary Layers with Pressure Gradients -- The Momentum Integral Technique for Boundary Layers -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Application Spotlight: Droplet Formation -- Problems -- ch. Eleven External Flow: Drag And Lift -- 11-1. Introduction -- 11-2. Drag and Lift -- 11-3. Friction and Pressure Drag -- Reducing Drag by Streamlining -- Flow Separation -- 11-4. Drag Coefficients of Common Geometries -- Biological Systems and Drag -- Drag Coefficients of Vehicles -- Superposition.
Contents note continued: 11-5. Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates -- Friction Coefficient -- 11-6. Flow Over Cylinders And Spheres -- Effect of Surface Roughness -- 11-7. Lift -- Finite-Span Wings and Induced Drag -- Lift Generated by Spinning -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Application Spotlight: Drag Reduction -- Problems -- ch. Twelve Compressible Flow -- 12-1. Stagnation Properties -- 12-2. One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow -- Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area -- Property Relations for Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gases -- 12-3. Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles -- Converging Nozzles -- Converging-Diverging Nozzles -- 12-4. Shock Waves and Expansion Waves -- Normal Shocks -- Oblique Shocks -- Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves -- 12-5. Duct Flow With Heat Transfer and Negligible Friction (Rayleigh Flow) -- Property Relations for Rayleigh Flow -- Choked Rayleigh Flow -- 12-6. Adiabatic Duct Flow With Friction (Fanno Flow) -- Property Relations for Fanno Flow.
Contents note continued: Choked Fanno Flow -- Application Spotlight: Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interactions -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Thirteen Open-Channel Flow -- 13-1. Classification of Open-Channel Flows -- Uniform and Varied Flows -- Laminar and Turbulent Flows in Channels -- 13-2. Froude Number and Wave Speed -- Speed of Surface Waves -- 13-3. Specific Energy -- 13-4. Conservation of Mass and Energy Equations -- 13-5. Uniform Flow in Channels -- Critical Uniform Flow -- Superposition Method for Nonuniform Perimeters -- 13-6. Best Hydraulic Cross Sections -- Rectangular Channels -- Trapezoidal Channels -- 13-7. Gradually Varied Flow -- Liquid Surface Profiles in Open Channels. y(x) -- Some Representative Surface Profiles -- Numerical Solution of Surface Profile -- 13-8. Rapidly Varied Flow and The Hydraulic Jump -- 13-9. Flow Control and Measurement -- Underflow Gates -- Overflow Gates -- Application Spotlight: Bridge Scour -- Summary.
Contents note continued: References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Fourteen Turbomachinery -- 14-1. Classifications and Terminology -- 14-2. Pumps -- Pump Performance Curves and Matching a Pump to a Piping System -- Pump Cavitation and Net Positive Suction Head -- Pumps in Series and Parallel -- Positive-Displacement Pumps -- Dynamic Pumps 806 Centrifugal Pumps -- Axial Pumps -- 14-3. Pump Scaling Laws -- Dimensional Analysis -- Pump Specific Speed -- Affinity Laws -- 14-4. Turbines -- Positive-Displacement Turbines -- Dynamic Turbines -- Impulse Turbines -- Reaction Turbines -- Gas and Steam Turbines -- Wind Turbines -- 14-5. Turbine Scaling Laws -- Dimensionless Turbine Parameters -- Turbine Specific Speed -- Application Spotlight: Rotary Fuel Atomizers -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Fifteen Introduction To Computational Fluid Dynamics -- 15-1. Introduction and Fundamentals -- Motivation -- Equations of Motion -- Solution Procedure.
Contents note continued: Additional Equations of Motion -- Grid Generation and Grid Independence -- Boundary Conditions -- Practice Makes Perfect -- 15-2. Laminar CFD Calculations -- Pipe Flow Entrance Region at Re = 500 -- Flow around a Circular Cylinder at Re = 150 -- 15-3. Turbulent CFD Calculations -- Flow around a Circular Cylinder at Re = 10,000 -- Flow around a Circular Cylinder at Re = 107 -- Design of the Stator for a Vane-Axial Flow Fan -- 15-4. CFD With Heat Transfer -- Temperature Rise through a Cross-Flow Heat Exchanger -- Cooling of an Array of Integrated Circuit Chips -- 15-5.Compressible Flow CFD Calculations -- Compressible Flow through a Converging-Diverging Nozzle -- Oblique Shocks over a Wedge -- 15-6. Open-Channel Flow CFD Calculations -- Flow over a Bump on the Bottom of a Channel -- Flow through a Sluice Gate (Hydraulic Jump) -- Application Spotlight: A Virtual Stomach -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems.
Contents note continued: APPENDIX 1 PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (SI UNITS) -- Table A-1 Molar Mass, Gas Constant, and Ideal-Gas Specfic Heats of Some Substances -- Table A-2 Boiling and Freezing Point Properties -- Table A-3 Properties of Saturated Water -- Table A-4 Properties of Saturated Refrigerant-134a -- Table A-5 Properties of Saturated Ammonia -- Table A-6 Properties of Saturated Propane -- Table A-7 Properties of Liquids -- Table A-8 Properties of Liquid Metals -- Table A-9 Properties of Air at 1 atm Pressure -- Table A-10 Properties of Gases at 1 atm Pressure -- Table A-11 Properties of the Atmosphere at High Altitude -- Figure A-12 The Moody Chart for the Friction Factor for Fully Developed Flow in Circular Pipes -- Table A-13 One-Dimensional Isentropic Compressible Flow Functions for an Ideal Gas with k = 1.4 -- Table A-14 One-Dimensional Normal Shock Functions for an Ideal Gas with k = 1.4 -- Table A-15 Rayleigh Flow Functions for an Ideal Gas with k = 1.4.
Contents note continued: Table A-16 Fanno Flow Functions for an Ideal Gas with k = 1.4 -- APPENDIX 2 PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (ENGLISH UNITS) -- Table A-1E Molar Mass, Gas Constant, and Ideal-Gas Specific Heats of Some Substances -- Table A-2E Boiling and Freezing Point Properties -- Table A-3E Properties of Saturated Water -- Table A-4E Properties of Saturated Refrigerant-134a -- Table A-5E Properties of Saturated Ammonia -- Table A-6E Properties of Saturated Propane -- Table A-7E Properties of Liquids -- Table A-8E Properties of Liquid Metals -- Table A-9E Properties of Air at 1 atm Pressure -- Table A-10E Properties of Gases at 1 atm Pressure -- Table A-11E Properties of the Atmosphere at High Altitude.
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Reference Reference TA357 .C395 2014 (Browse shelf) Not For Loan

Includes bibliographical references and index.

Machine generated contents note: ch. One Introduction And Basic Concepts -- 1-1. Introduction -- What Is a Fluid? -- Application Areas of Fluid Mechanics -- 1-2.A Brief History of Fluid Mechanics -- 1-3. The No-Slip Condition -- 1-4. Classification of Fluid Flows -- Viscous versus Inviscid Regions of Flow -- Internal versus External Flow -- Compressible versus Incompressible Flow -- Laminar versus Turbulent Flow -- Natural (or Unforced) versus Forced Flow -- Steady versus Unsteady Flow -- One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Flows -- 1-5. System and Control Volume -- 1-6. Importance of Dimensions and Units -- Some SI and English Units -- Dimensional Homogeneity -- Unity Conversion Ratios -- 1-7. Modeling in Engineering -- 1-8. Problem-Solving Technique -- Step 1 Problem Statement -- Step 2 Schematic -- Step 3 Assumptions and Approximations -- Step 4 Physical Laws -- Step 5 Properties -- Step 6 Calculations -- Step 7 Reasoning, Verification, and Discussion.

Contents note continued: 1-9. Engineering Software Packages -- Engineering Equation Solver (EES) -- CFD Software -- 1-10. Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Digits -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Application Spotlight: What Nuclear Blasts and Raindrops Have in Common -- Problems -- ch. Two Properties Of Fluids -- 2-1. Introduction -- Continuum -- 2-2. Density and Specific Gravity -- Density of Ideal Gases -- 2-3. Vapor Pressure and Cavitation -- 2-4. Energy and Specific Heats -- 2-5.Compressibility and Speed of Sound -- Coefficient of Compressibility -- Coefficient of Volume Expansion -- Speed of Sound and Mach Number -- 2-6. Viscosity -- 2-7. Surface Tension and Capillary Effect -- Capillary Effect -- Summary -- Application Spotlight: Cavitation -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Three Pressure And Fluid Statics -- 3-1. Pressure -- Pressure at a Point -- Variation of Pressure with Depth -- 3-2. Pressure Measurement Devices.

Contents note continued: The Barometer 81 The Manometer -- Other Pressure Measurement Devices -- 3-3. Introduction to Fluid Statics -- 3-4. Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane Surfaces -- Special Case: Submerged Rectangular Plate -- 3-5. Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Curved Surfaces -- 3-6. Buoyancy and Stability -- Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies -- 3-7. Fluids in Rigid-Body Motion -- Special Case 1 Fluids at Rest -- Special Case 2 Free Fall of a Fluid Body -- Acceleration on a Straight Path -- Rotation in a Cylindrical Container -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Four Fluid Kinematics -- 4-1. Lagrangian and Eulerian Descriptions -- Acceleration Field -- Material Derivative -- 4-2. Flow Patterns and Flow Visualization -- Streamlines and Streamtubes -- Pathlines -- Streaklines -- Timelines -- Refractive Flow Visualization Techniques -- Surface Flow Visualization Techniques -- 4-3. Plots of Fluid Flow Data -- Profile Plots -- Vector Plots.

Contents note continued: Contour Plots -- 4-4. Other Kinematic Descriptions -- Types of Motion or Deformation of Fluid Elements -- 4-5. Vorticity and Rotationality -- Comparison of Two Circular Flows -- 4-6. The Reynolds Transport Theorem -- Alternate Derivation of the Reynolds Transport Theorem -- Relationship between Material Derivative and RTT -- Summary -- Application Spotlight: Fluidic Actuators -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Five Bernoulli And Energy Equations -- 5-1. Introduction -- Conservation of Mass -- The Linear Momentum Equation -- Conservation of Energy -- 5-2. Conservation of Mass -- Mass and Volume Flow Rates -- Conservation of Mass Principle -- Moving or Deforming Control Volumes -- Mass Balance for Steady-Flow Processes -- Special Case: Incompressible Flow -- 5-3. Mechanical Energy and Efficiency -- 5-4. The Bernoulli Equation -- Acceleration of a Fluid Particle -- Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation -- Force Balance across Streamlines.

Contents note continued: Unsteady, Compressible Flow -- Static, Dynamic, and Stagnation Pressures -- Limitations on the Use of the Bernoulli Equation -- Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL) and Energy Grade Line (EGL) -- Applications of the Bernoulli Equation -- 5-5. General Energy Equation -- Energy Transfer by Heat, Q -- Energy Transfer by Work, W -- 5-6. Energy Analysis of Steady Flows -- Special Case: Incompressible Flow with No Mechanical Work Devices and Negligible Friction -- Kinetic Energy Correction Factor, [alpha] -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Six Momentum Analysis Of Flow Systems -- 6-1. Newton's Laws -- 6-2. Choosing a Control Volume -- 6-3. Forces Acting on a Control Volume -- 6-4. The Linear Momentum Equation -- Special Cases -- Momentum-Flux Correction Factor, [beta] -- Steady Flow -- Flow with No External Forces -- 6-5. Review of Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum -- 6-6. The Angular Momentum Equation -- Special Cases.

Contents note continued: Flow with No External Moments -- Radial-Flow Devices -- Application Spotlight: Manta Ray Swimming -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Seven Dimensional Analysis And Modeling -- 7-1. Dimensions and Units -- 7-2. Dimensional Homogeneity -- Nondimensionalization of Equations -- 7-3. Dimensional Analysis and Similarity -- 7-4. The Method of Repeating Variables and The Buckingham Pi Theorem -- Historical Spotlight: Persons Honored by Nondimensional Parameters -- 7-5. Experimental Testing, Modeling, and Incomplete Similarity -- Setup of an Experiment and Correlation of Experimental Data -- Incomplete Similarity -- Wind Tunnel Testing -- Flows with Free Surfaces -- Application Spotlight: How a Fly Flies -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Eight Internal Flow -- 8-1. Introduction -- 8-2. Laminar and Turbulent Flows -- Reynolds Number -- 8-3. The Entrance Region -- Entry Leneths -- 8-4. Laminar Flow in Pipes.

Contents note continued: Pressure Drop and Head Loss -- Effect of Gravity on Velocity and Flow Rate in Laminar Flow -- Laminar Flow in Noncircular Pipes -- 8-5. Turbulent Flow in Pipes -- Turbulent Shear Stress -- Turbulent Velocity Profile -- The Moody Chart and the Colebrook Equation -- Types of Fluid Flow Problems -- 8-6. Minor Losses -- 8-7. Piping Networks and Pump Selection -- Series and Parallel Pipes -- Piping Systems with Pumps and Turbines -- 8-8. Flow Rate and Velocity Measurement -- Pitot and Pitot-Static Probes -- Obstruction Flowmeters: Orifice, Venturi, and Nozzle Meters -- Positive Displacement Flowmeters -- Turbine Flowmeters -- Variable-Area Flowmeters (Rotameters) -- Ultrasonic Flowmeters -- Electromagnetic Flowmeters -- Vortex Flowmeters -- Thermal (Hot-Wire and Hot-Film) Anemometers -- Laser Doppler Velocimetry -- Particle Image Velocimetry -- Introduction to Biofluid Mechanics -- Application Spotlight: PIV Applied to Cardiac Flow -- Summary.

Contents note continued: References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Nine Differential Analysis Of Fluid Flow -- 9-1. Introduction -- 9-2. Conservation of Mass---The Continuity Equation -- Derivation Using the Divergence Theorem -- Derivation Using an Infinitesimal Control Volume -- Alternative Form of the Continuity Equation -- Continuity Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates -- Special Cases of the Continuity Equation -- 9-3. The Stream Function -- The Stream Function in Cartesian Coordinates -- The Stream Function in Cylindrical Coordinates -- The Compressible Stream Function -- 9-4. The Differential Linear Momentum Equation---Cauchy's Equation -- Derivation Using the Divergence Theorem -- Derivation Using an Infinitesimal Control Volume -- Alternative Form of Cauchy's Equation -- Derivation Using Newton's Second Law -- 9-5. The Navier-Stokes Equation -- Introduction -- Newtonian versus Non-Newtonian Fluids.

Contents note continued: Derivation of the Navier-Stokes Equation for Incompressible, Isothermal Flow -- Continuity and Navier-Stokes Equations in Cartesian Coordinates -- Continuity and Navier-Stokes Equations in Cylindrical Coordinates -- 9-6. Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow Problems -- Calculation of the Pressure Field for a Known Velocity Field -- Exact Solutions of the Continuity and Navier-Stokes Equations -- Differential Analysis of Biofluid Mechanics Flows -- Application Spotlight: The No-Slip Boundary Condition -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Ten Approximate Solutions Of The Navier-Stokes Equation -- 10-1. Introduction -- 10-2. Nondimensionalized Equations of Motion -- 10-3. The Creeping Flow Approximation -- Drag on a Sphere in Creeping Flow -- 10-4. Approximation for Inviscid Regions of Flow -- Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation in Inviscid Regions of Flow -- 10-5. The Irrotational Flow Approximation -- Continuity Equation.

Contents note continued: Momentum Equation -- Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation in Irrotational Regions of Flow -- Two-Dimensional Irrotational Regions of Flow -- Superposition in Irrotational Regions of Flow -- Elementary Planar Irrotational Flows -- Irrotational Flows Formed by Superposition -- 10-6. The Boundary Layer Approximation -- The Boundary Layer Equations -- The Boundary Layer Procedure -- Displacement Thickness -- Momentum Thickness -- Turbulent Flat Plate Boundary Layer -- Boundary Layers with Pressure Gradients -- The Momentum Integral Technique for Boundary Layers -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Application Spotlight: Droplet Formation -- Problems -- ch. Eleven External Flow: Drag And Lift -- 11-1. Introduction -- 11-2. Drag and Lift -- 11-3. Friction and Pressure Drag -- Reducing Drag by Streamlining -- Flow Separation -- 11-4. Drag Coefficients of Common Geometries -- Biological Systems and Drag -- Drag Coefficients of Vehicles -- Superposition.

Contents note continued: 11-5. Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates -- Friction Coefficient -- 11-6. Flow Over Cylinders And Spheres -- Effect of Surface Roughness -- 11-7. Lift -- Finite-Span Wings and Induced Drag -- Lift Generated by Spinning -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Application Spotlight: Drag Reduction -- Problems -- ch. Twelve Compressible Flow -- 12-1. Stagnation Properties -- 12-2. One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow -- Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area -- Property Relations for Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gases -- 12-3. Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles -- Converging Nozzles -- Converging-Diverging Nozzles -- 12-4. Shock Waves and Expansion Waves -- Normal Shocks -- Oblique Shocks -- Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves -- 12-5. Duct Flow With Heat Transfer and Negligible Friction (Rayleigh Flow) -- Property Relations for Rayleigh Flow -- Choked Rayleigh Flow -- 12-6. Adiabatic Duct Flow With Friction (Fanno Flow) -- Property Relations for Fanno Flow.

Contents note continued: Choked Fanno Flow -- Application Spotlight: Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interactions -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Thirteen Open-Channel Flow -- 13-1. Classification of Open-Channel Flows -- Uniform and Varied Flows -- Laminar and Turbulent Flows in Channels -- 13-2. Froude Number and Wave Speed -- Speed of Surface Waves -- 13-3. Specific Energy -- 13-4. Conservation of Mass and Energy Equations -- 13-5. Uniform Flow in Channels -- Critical Uniform Flow -- Superposition Method for Nonuniform Perimeters -- 13-6. Best Hydraulic Cross Sections -- Rectangular Channels -- Trapezoidal Channels -- 13-7. Gradually Varied Flow -- Liquid Surface Profiles in Open Channels. y(x) -- Some Representative Surface Profiles -- Numerical Solution of Surface Profile -- 13-8. Rapidly Varied Flow and The Hydraulic Jump -- 13-9. Flow Control and Measurement -- Underflow Gates -- Overflow Gates -- Application Spotlight: Bridge Scour -- Summary.

Contents note continued: References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Fourteen Turbomachinery -- 14-1. Classifications and Terminology -- 14-2. Pumps -- Pump Performance Curves and Matching a Pump to a Piping System -- Pump Cavitation and Net Positive Suction Head -- Pumps in Series and Parallel -- Positive-Displacement Pumps -- Dynamic Pumps 806 Centrifugal Pumps -- Axial Pumps -- 14-3. Pump Scaling Laws -- Dimensional Analysis -- Pump Specific Speed -- Affinity Laws -- 14-4. Turbines -- Positive-Displacement Turbines -- Dynamic Turbines -- Impulse Turbines -- Reaction Turbines -- Gas and Steam Turbines -- Wind Turbines -- 14-5. Turbine Scaling Laws -- Dimensionless Turbine Parameters -- Turbine Specific Speed -- Application Spotlight: Rotary Fuel Atomizers -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Fifteen Introduction To Computational Fluid Dynamics -- 15-1. Introduction and Fundamentals -- Motivation -- Equations of Motion -- Solution Procedure.

Contents note continued: Additional Equations of Motion -- Grid Generation and Grid Independence -- Boundary Conditions -- Practice Makes Perfect -- 15-2. Laminar CFD Calculations -- Pipe Flow Entrance Region at Re = 500 -- Flow around a Circular Cylinder at Re = 150 -- 15-3. Turbulent CFD Calculations -- Flow around a Circular Cylinder at Re = 10,000 -- Flow around a Circular Cylinder at Re = 107 -- Design of the Stator for a Vane-Axial Flow Fan -- 15-4. CFD With Heat Transfer -- Temperature Rise through a Cross-Flow Heat Exchanger -- Cooling of an Array of Integrated Circuit Chips -- 15-5.Compressible Flow CFD Calculations -- Compressible Flow through a Converging-Diverging Nozzle -- Oblique Shocks over a Wedge -- 15-6. Open-Channel Flow CFD Calculations -- Flow over a Bump on the Bottom of a Channel -- Flow through a Sluice Gate (Hydraulic Jump) -- Application Spotlight: A Virtual Stomach -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems.

Contents note continued: APPENDIX 1 PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (SI UNITS) -- Table A-1 Molar Mass, Gas Constant, and Ideal-Gas Specfic Heats of Some Substances -- Table A-2 Boiling and Freezing Point Properties -- Table A-3 Properties of Saturated Water -- Table A-4 Properties of Saturated Refrigerant-134a -- Table A-5 Properties of Saturated Ammonia -- Table A-6 Properties of Saturated Propane -- Table A-7 Properties of Liquids -- Table A-8 Properties of Liquid Metals -- Table A-9 Properties of Air at 1 atm Pressure -- Table A-10 Properties of Gases at 1 atm Pressure -- Table A-11 Properties of the Atmosphere at High Altitude -- Figure A-12 The Moody Chart for the Friction Factor for Fully Developed Flow in Circular Pipes -- Table A-13 One-Dimensional Isentropic Compressible Flow Functions for an Ideal Gas with k = 1.4 -- Table A-14 One-Dimensional Normal Shock Functions for an Ideal Gas with k = 1.4 -- Table A-15 Rayleigh Flow Functions for an Ideal Gas with k = 1.4.

Contents note continued: Table A-16 Fanno Flow Functions for an Ideal Gas with k = 1.4 -- APPENDIX 2 PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (ENGLISH UNITS) -- Table A-1E Molar Mass, Gas Constant, and Ideal-Gas Specific Heats of Some Substances -- Table A-2E Boiling and Freezing Point Properties -- Table A-3E Properties of Saturated Water -- Table A-4E Properties of Saturated Refrigerant-134a -- Table A-5E Properties of Saturated Ammonia -- Table A-6E Properties of Saturated Propane -- Table A-7E Properties of Liquids -- Table A-8E Properties of Liquid Metals -- Table A-9E Properties of Air at 1 atm Pressure -- Table A-10E Properties of Gases at 1 atm Pressure -- Table A-11E Properties of the Atmosphere at High Altitude.

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